“Asset” and “No Asset” Closed-Business Chapter 7 Cases

When the sole proprietor of a just-closed business files a personal Chapter 7 bankruptcy case, the trustee may or may not have assets to liquidate and distribute to the creditors. If not, the case will more likely be finished faster. But if the trustee does collect some assets, there can be some bigger advantages in that for the former business owner. 

If you closed down your business and as a result are now personally liable on large debts that you cannot pay, you may well be wondering whether bankruptcy is your best option. Assuming that you qualify for a Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy,” one important issue to consider is whether your case would likely be an “asset” or “no asset” one.  An “asset case” is one in which the Chapter 7 trustee collects assets from you to sell and distribute their proceeds to your creditors. A “no asset case” is one in which the trustee does not collect any assets from you because your assets are either protected by “exemptions” or are not worth the trustee’s efforts and expense to collect.

Generally a “no asset case” is simpler and quicker than an “asset case,” although not necessarily better. It’s simpler because it avoids the entire liquidation and distribution process. A simple “no asset case” can be completed about three months after it is filed (assuming other kinds of complication do not arise).  In contrast, it can take time for a trustee to take possession of an asset, sell it in a fair and open manner with notice to all interested parties, give creditors the opportunity to file claims on the sale proceeds, object to any inappropriate claims, and then distribute the funds pro rata.  Some assets—especially intangible ones such as a debtor’s disputed claims against a third party—can take several years for the trustee to resolve and convert into cash, keeping the bankruptcy case open throughout this time.

In spite of this seeming disadvantage, an “asset case” can be better for a former business owner in certain circumstances.

First, a business owner may decide to close down a business and file a bankruptcy quickly afterwards to hand over to the trustee the headaches of collecting and liquidating the assets and paying the creditors in a fair and legally appropriate way. After fighting for a long time to try to save a business, the owner may well be emotionally spent and in no position to try to negotiate work-out terms with all the creditors, and have no available money to pay an attorney to do so. And if there are relatively few assets compared to the amount of debts—the usual situation—it’s likely that after all that effort there will still be an impossible amount of debt.

And second, that former business owner may want his or her assets to go through the Chapter 7 liquidation process if the debts that the trustee will likely pay first are ones that the former business owner especially wants to be paid. The trustee pays creditors according to a legal list of priorities. Without going here into the details of that long priorities list, at the top of the list are child and spousal support arrearages. Also high on the list are certain employee wage, commission, and benefits claims, as well as certain tax claims. He or she may well feel a special responsibility to take care of the ex-spouse and children, former employees, and taxes. And the fact that he or she would likely continue being personally liable on these obligations after the bankruptcy is over undoubtedly adds some motivation.

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